Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating (English Edition)

  • 433 pages
  • Anglais
  • Format Kindle
Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating (English Edition)

ഴ Free Read Format Kindle [ 騑 Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy: The Harvard Medical School Guide to Healthy Eating (English Edition) ] ඎ E-Pub Author P.J Skerrett ඵ Aimed at nothing less than totally restructuring the diets of Americans, Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy may well accomplish its goal Dr Walter C Willett gets off to a roaring start by totally dismantling one of the largest icons in health today the USDA Food Pyramid that we all learn in elementary school He blames many of the pyramid s recommendations 6 to 11 servings of carbohydrates, all fats used sparingly for much of the current wave of obesity At first this may read differently than any diet book, but Willett also makes a crucial, rarely mentioned point about this icon The thing to keep in mind about the USDA Pyramid is that it comes from the Department of Agriculture, the agency responsible for promoting American agriculture, not from the agencies established to monitor and protect our health It s no wonder that dairy products and American grown grains such as wheat and corn figure so prominently in the USDA s recommendations. Willett s own simple pyramid has several benefits over the traditional format His information is up to date, and you won t find recommendations that come from special interest groups His ideas are nothing radical if we eat vegetables and complex carbohydrates no, potatoes are not complex , emphasize healthy fats, and enjoy small amounts of a tremendous variety of food, we will be healthier You ll find some surprises as well, such as doubts about the overall benefits of soy unless you re willing to eat a pound and a half of tofu a day , and that nuts, with their good fat content, are a terrific snack Relying on research rather than anecdotes, this is a solidly written nutritional guide that will show you the real story behind how food is digested, from the glycemic index for carbs to the wisdom of adding a multivitamin to your diet Willett combines research with matter of fact language and a no nonsense tone that turns academic studies into easily understandable suggestions for living Jill LightnerEat, Drink, and Be Healthy CHAPTER ONE Healthy Eating Matters YOU EAT TO LIVE Its a simple, obvious truth You need food for the basics of everyday lifeto pump blood, move muscles, think thoughts But what you eat and drink can also help you live well and live longer By making the right choices, you can avoid some of the things we think of as inevitable penalties of getting older Eating wellteamed with keeping your weight in the healthy range, exercising regularly, and not smokingcan prevent 80 percent of heart attacks, 90 percent of type 2 diabetes, and 70 percent of colorectal cancer.1 It can also help you avoid stroke, osteoporosis, constipation and other digestive woes, cataracts, and aging related memory loss or dementia And the benefits arent just for the future A healthy diet can give you energy and help you feel good today Making poor dietary choiceseating too much of the wrong kinds of food and too little of the right kinds, or too much food altogethercan send you in the other direction, increasing your chances of developing one or chronic conditions or dying early An unhealthy diet during pregnancy can cause some birth defects and may even influence a babys health into adulthood and old age When it comes to diet, knowing whats good and whats bad isnt always easy The food industry spends billions of dollars a year to influence your choices, mostly in the wrong direction Diet gurus promote the latest fads, most of which are less than healthy, while the media serves up near daily helpings of flip flopping nutrition news Supermarkets and fast food restaurants also offer conflicting advice, as do cereal boxes and thousands of websites, blogs, Facebook pages, and tweets The federal government, through its Food Guide Pyramid, MyPyramid, and MyPlate images, aimed to cut through the confusion but ended up giving misleading and often unhealthy recommendations see chapter two that benefit American agriculture and food companies than Americans health While the average American diet still has a long way to go before it can be called healthy, it has improved over the past decade or so in spite of the babel of nutrition information Several of my colleagues and I looked at the diets of almost 34,000 Americans who took part in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2012 This survey, conducted every year, gauges the diet, health, and nutritional status of a sample of adults and children in the United States We rated the diet of each participant using a tool we developed that assigns higher points to healthy components of the diet, like eating whole grains and unsaturated fats, and lower points to unhealthy components, like eating red meat and drinking sugar sweetened beverages The highest score, 110, indicates the healthiest diet possible We were delighted to report that the quality of the American diet improved between 1999 and 2012.2 Consumption of artery damaging trans fats declined by 80 or 90 percent, and Americans drank about 25 percent fewer sugar sweetened beverages On average, people ate slightly fruit, whole grains, and healthy unsaturated fats Our study showed that the average American diet still wasnt very healthyrating 48 points out of 110and that poorer individuals and those with less education have poorer diets than wealthier and better educated individuals And this gap looks like it is increasing over time Yet, these modest improvements in diet quality had an astounding impact on the health of the nation Between 1999 and 2012, we estimated that these changes prevented 1.1 million premature deaths from heart attacks, strokes, cancer, and other causes, and 3 million cases of type 2 diabetes But theres work to be done, since the average American diet in this study wasnt that great The eating strategies described in this book will help you make a great diet and reap not only the benefits described in this study but many as well SIMPLE STEPS I wrote Eat, Drink, and Be Healthy in 2001 to cut through the confusion about diet Basing the book on the most reliable scientific evidence available then, I offered recommendations for eating and drinking healthfully Sixteen years and thousands of scientific papers later, the recommendations in this edition of the book are fundamentally the same, though supported with extensive evidence and enhanced with important new details Thats encouraging, because it means that, with careful attention to the types and strength of studies, we can make conclusions about healthy eating that withstand the test of time and deep scientific scrutiny However, the book needed to be updated, because far too many Americans are still confused about what constitutes a healthy diet and are looking for the best available information Even encouraging is that national recommendations on healthy eating, called the Dietary Guidelines for Americans,3 have been inching closer to what I advised in 2001 and still advise today I cant quite rival the brevity of food writer Michael Pollans seven word dietary credo, Eat food Not too much Mostly plants.4 Thats a decent general overview, but it doesnt offer much real guidance Thats exactly what this book provides Here is the outline of my simple, actionable advice for healthy eating, which I describe in detail later in the book Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits, but limit fruit juices and corn, and hold the potatoes Eat good fats these mostly come from plants and fewer bad fats these mostly come from meat and dairy foods Eat whole grain carbohydrates and fewer refined grain carbohydrates Choose healthy sources of protein, limit your consumption of red meat, and dont eat processed meat Drink water Coffee and tea are okay sugar sweetened soda and other beverages arent Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all Take a multivitamin for insurance, just in case you arent getting the vitamins and minerals you need from the foods you eat Make sure it delivers at least 1,000 international units of vitamin D Since the last edition of the book, many studies have supported the benefits of a primarily plant based diet This doesnt mean you must go vegan or vegetarian Even a partial shift away from a meat and dairy centered diet and toward plant sources of protein is a big step in the direction of long term good health for you and planet Earth see chapter twelve If swearing off meat isnt for you, think about trying the vegan till 6 plan favored by New York Times food writer Mark Bittman Or experiment with the popular Meatless Monday movement and one day a weekchoosing Monday makes it easy to remember, but it could be any daynot eat any meat While many food experts Pollan, Bittman, and myself among them agree with a plant based diet, the USDA hasnt been entirely on board with it You can see that in MyPlate, a less than healthy infographic the USDA cooked up to summarize the dietary recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans see chapter two To counter that flawed information, I and several of my colleagues at the Harvard T.H Chan School of Public Health, in collaboration with Harvard Health Publications, distilled the best evidence about healthy eating into the Harvard Healthy Eating Plate This visual, evidence based guide makes it easy to choose the healthiest options Its also an important alternative to the USDAs misleading My Plate see chapter two The main message of the Healthy Eating Plate, like its older sibling, the Healthy Eating Pyramid, is to focus on diet quality Celebrate vegetables and fruits Cover half of your plate with them Aim for color and variety Keep in mind that potatoes dont count see The Spud Is a Dud on page 167 THE HARVARD HEALTHY EATING PLATE Figure 1.The Harvard Healthy Eating Plate was created to address deficiencies in the USDAs MyPlate It provides simple but detailed guidance to help people make the best eating choices Go for whole grainsabout one quarter of your plate Intact and whole grains, such as whole wheat, barley, wheat berries, quinoa, oats, brown rice, and foods made with them, have a milder effect on blood sugar and insulin than white bread, white rice, and other refined grains see chapter six Choose healthy protein packagesabout one quarter of your plate Fish, chicken, beans, soybeans, and nuts are all healthy, versatile protein sources Limit red meat, and try to stay away from processed meats such as bacon and sausage see chapter seven Use healthy plant oils, such as olive, canola, soy, corn, sunflower, and peanut, in moderation Stay away from foods containing partially hydrogenated oils, which contain unhealthy artificial trans fats see Trans fats, page 83 If you like the taste of butter or coconut oil, use them when their flavor is important but not as primary dietary fats Keep in mind that low fat does not mean healthy see chapter five Drink water, coffee, or tea Skip sugary drinks If you enjoy milk, dont have than two glasses a day see chapter nine If you drink alcohol, keep it moderateno than two drinks a day for men, no than one a day for women Exercise Its good for overall health and controlling weight Using the blueprint laid out in the Harvard Healthy Eating Plate is a good way to improve your diet But I also want you to see the evidence on which it was built This is detailed in chapters four through eleven In them, I describe the classic and cutting edge research that has defined and refined eating patterns that will help keep you healthy, including new information on slowly digested carbohydrates what kinds of fruits and vegetables are particularly important to include in your diet what protein can and cant do how to put the omega 3 fats found in fish and some plants to work for you the potential hazards of consuming too much milk and other dairy foods and why it makes sense to take a daily multivitamin This book helps you incorporate this information into your snacks and meals with practical tips on buying healthy foods and eating defensively in a food environment that entices you to eat in ways that can prematurely end your life It offers extra information to help individuals with special nutritional needs get the most benefit from what they eat These include pregnant women, frail older individuals, those with celiac disease, and those with or at high risk of heart disease, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or some other chronic conditions It ends with than seventy tasty tested recipes This information isnt meant to replace the advice you get from your physician, especially if you have a condition that requires a specific diet Instead, I encourage you to talk with your health care provider about your diet and share with him or her what youve learned from this book to make sure you are talking the same language about healthy eating Keep in mind that most physicians to be get little education about nutrition in medical school or beyond And the pressures of modern medicine and health care often make it difficult for clinicians to keep up with the field of nutrition, let alone spend time talking with their patients about healthy food choices You may find yourself teaching your health care provider Not long ago my cholesterol began creeping up Much to my dismay, my doctor recommended that I start a low fat dieta recommendation from the 1980s that we now know doesnt work for lowering cholesterol This book will help you stay healthy and educate your doctor if you need to. 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