The Enduring Legacy: Oil, Culture, and Society in Venezuela

  • 344 pages
  • Anglais
  • Format Kindle
The Enduring Legacy: Oil, Culture, and Society in Venezuela

ₑ Download Format Kindle [ ≴ The Enduring Legacy: Oil, Culture, and Society in Venezuela ] For Free ₰ E-Pub Author Miguel Tinker Salas ⃑ Miguel Tinker Salas leaves no leaf unturned in his examination of the Venezuelan oil industry and in the process demonstrates its all encompassing influence on the political, social, economic, and cultural life of the nation throughout most of the twentieth century One of his most important contributions is to show how the foreign owned oil companies ingeniously modified policies in order to adapt to the requirements of different regimes, including dictatorships, transitional governments, and democratic ones At the same time, however, he amply documents how the multinationals generated resentment and resistance as a result of their imposition on Venezuelans of attitudes and patterns from the metropolis and their spurning of local traditions In short, The Enduring Legacy is a must read for anyone who wants to go beneath the surface to understand the Venezuelan experience in all its dimensions Steve Ellner, author of Rethinking Venezuelan Politics Class, Conflict, and the Chavez Phenomenon The Enduring Legacy illuminates a national landscape deeply shaped by the oil industry, yet often analyzed as if this industry were an economic enclave isolated from Venezuelan society Miguel Tinker Salas convincingly argues that from the outset, this industry was a crucible of social transformations within and beyond itself By examining the transmutation of this industry from a foreign enclave to a national industry, this valuable book offers a sweeping view of one hundred years of Venezuelan history Fernando Coronil, author of The Magical State Nature, Money, and Modernity in VenezuelaOil has played a major role in Venezuelas economy since the first gusher was discovered along Lake Maracaibo in 1922 As Miguel Tinker Salas demonstrates, oil has also transformed the countrys social, cultural, and political landscapes In The Enduring Legacy, Tinker Salas traces the history of the oil industrys rise in Venezuela from the beginning of the twentieth century, paying particular attention to the experiences and perceptions of industry employees, both foreign and Venezuelan He reveals how class ambitions and corporate interests combined to reshape many Venezuelans ideas of citizenship Middle class Venezuelans embraced the oil industry from the start, anticipating that it would transform the country by introducing modern technology, sparking economic development, and breaking the landed elites stranglehold Eventually Venezuelan employees of the industry found that their benefits, including relatively high salaries, fueled loyalty to the oil companies That loyalty sometimes trumped allegiance to the nation state.North American and British petroleum companies, seeking to maintain their stakes in Venezuela, promoted the idea that their interests were synonymous with national development They set up oil campsresidential communities to house their workersthat brought Venezuelan employees together with workers from the United States and Britain, and eventually with Chinese, West Indian, and Mexican migrants as well Through the camps, the companies offered not just housing but also schooling, leisure activities, and acculturation into a structured, corporate way of life Tinker Salas contends that these practices shaped the heart and soul of generations of Venezuelans whom the industry provided with access to a middle class lifestyle His interest in how oil suffused the consciousness of Venezuela is personal Tinker Salas was born and raised in one of its oil camps. 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